[38], Phenolic resins have been commonly used in ablative heat shields. In 1939, the companies were acquired by Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation. Bakelite is a generic named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. It is known as one of the first synthetic plastics, derived from methanol and coal tar. 2. This little known plugin reveals the answer. Bakelite resin could be provided either as powder, or as preformed partially cured slugs, increasing the speed of the casting. I too would like to recycle old bakelite into new pieces of jewelry, but cannot find out how to do it-I think you have to crush it and then inject something in it-the fine powder it is crushed into is highly toxic and is carcinogenic so special precautions have to be implemented. A trademark for any of a group of synthetic resins and plastics found in a variety of manufactured articles. Join now. BAKELITE IS THERMO-PLASTIC ITS A VERY GOOD ELECTRICAL INSULATOR. Sustained heating results in an "insoluble hard gum". Bakelite powder can be moulded into any shape easily on hot mouldings machines. The AKM and some early AK-74 rifles are frequently mistakenly identified as using Bakelite, but most were made with AG-S4. However, the high temperatures required to create this tends to cause violent foaming of the mixture when done at standard atmospheric pressure, which results in the cooled material being porous and breakable. Bakelite (and Galalith before it) introduced plastics to the fashion world, to be followed by nylon, polyester, spandex, and more. [7]:44–45, The earliest commercial use of Bakelite in the electrical industry was the molding of tiny insulating bushings, made in 1908 for the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation by Richard W. Seabury of the Boonton Rubber Company. Some common types include:[24], Bakelite has a number of important properties. Also, because of the smooth polished surface that resulted, Bakelite objects required less finishing. Translucent jewelry, poker chips and other items made of phenolic resins were introduced in the 1930s or 1940s by the Catalin company under the Prystal name. After a decade of primarily industrial applications, Bakelite soon entered the consumer market. Bakelite continues to be used for wire insulation, brake pads and related automotive components, and industrial electrical-related applications. In 1907, Baekeland was seeking a more durable replacement for shellac and hard rubber. umeshroy81026 umeshroy81026 25.08.2020 Science Secondary School +5 pts. [63] Bakelite is also used in the mounting of metal samples in metallography. At first, Bakelite came only in dark colors because the wood shavings and asbestos fibers used to strengthen it showed up in the plastic if lighter colors were used. Baekeland's initial intent was to find a replacement for shellac, a material in limited supply because it was made naturally from the excretion of lac insects (specifically Kerria lacca). [7][29] By 1912, it was being used to make billiard balls, since its elasticity and the sound it made were similar to ivory. [42][43] Later, Diana Vreeland, editor of Vogue, was enthusiastic about Bakelite. Fakelite also produces a pungent petroleum odor when rubbed or warmed, but Bakelite® emits a distinctly formaldehyde odor. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. ; lacquers, for protecting the surface of hardware; enamels, for giving resistive coating to industrial equipment; Laminated Bakelite, used for silent gears and insulation; and molding material, from which are formed innumerable articles of utility and beauty. Bakelite is used in making everything from jewelry to billiard balls to firearm magazines. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 21:47. Redman. [61], By the late 1940s, newer materials were superseding Bakelite in many areas. Bakelite is used for making combs, photograph records, electrical switches etc. In England, Bakelite Limited, a merger of three British phenol formaldehyde resin suppliers (Damard Lacquer Company Limited of Birmingham, Mouldensite Limited of Darley Dale and Redmanol Chemical Products Company of London), was formed in 1926. Log in. The range of colors available included "black, brown, red, yellow, green, gray, blue, and blends of two or more of these". Join now. [44] Bakelite was also used to make presentation boxes for Breitling watches. Lucite was created in the 1930s and has an entirely clear appearance. Condensites are similar thermoset materials having much the same properties, characteristics, and uses. In 2005, Union Carbide's phenolic resin business, including the Bakelite and Bakelit registered trademarks, were assigned to Hexion Inc. On the 1st of April, 2019 Hexion filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The result is a hard plastic material. [4] Bakelite, his "method of making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde," was filed on July 13, 1907, and granted on December 7, 1909. Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. Bakelite Bowl with Nutcracker. It begins with heating of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, or the base ammonia. Bakelite is actually a real-life substance, however, real bakelite doesn't have the properties that "bakelite" does in the series. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as binding glue for laminated wooden plants, in varnishes and lacquers. [41] :27–29 Designers such as Elsa Schiaparelli used it for jewelry and also for specially designed dress buttons. Ask your question. Includes exhibits, slide show, handouts and much much more.. please contact me for full details, see below .. many people have already enjoyed the fun world of Bakelite... these include the Havering Antiques and Collectors Club, The Yorkshire Clarice Cliff Group and Ann Zierold Art Deco Fairs just to name a few !! And so "Faturan", named after its original inventor, became a brand of cast thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, similar to Bakelite and Catalin, manufactured by Traun & Son of Hamburg., developed in the early 20th century, and produced until the 1940s. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. [27], The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. The trademark rights for this plastic are owned by a … Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of phenol and formaldehyde, generally with a wood flour filler, it was the first plastic made from synthetic polymers. Good mechanical and impact strength with continuous operating temperature of 250 °F (120 °C). Superior electrical properties under humid conditions, fungus resistant, continuous operating temperature of 160 °F (70 °C). Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. 1. Bakelite definition, a brand name for any of a series of thermosetting plastics prepared by heating phenol or cresol with formaldehyde and ammonia under pressure: used for radio cabinets, telephone receivers, electric insulators, and molded plastic ware. "Bakelite" and "Parkesine" are both synthetic resins named after their inventors. Manufacturers made many different products from the hefty, durable plastic. [13] Under director of advertising and public relations Allan Brown, who came to Bakelite from Condensite, Bakelite was aggressively marketed as "the material of a thousand uses". … Phenolic sheet is a hard, dense material made by applying heat and pressure to layers of paper or glass cloth impregnated with synthetic resin. Bakelite was first used as insulators against heat and electricity. Union Carbide sold the trademark in 1992 to the Georgia-Pacific Corporation, which employed Bakelite as a bonding agent for plywood and particleboard. I just heard on an episode of "Pawn Stars" that one of the first products made from Bakelite was billiard balls. A new Bakelite factory opened in Tyseley, Birmingham, around 1928. Even so, the majority of these objects are described as Bakelite now. Ask your question. In recent years the "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible. [38] It was soon found in myriad other consumer products ranging from pipe stems and buttons to saxophone mouthpieces, cameras, early machine guns, and appliance casings. Bakelite is a trade name for an early form of plastic called phenolic resin. Bakelite could be melted and poured into lead molds to form the shape of a radio. Log in. [7]:43[28] Bakelite was soon used for non-conducting parts of telephones, radios and other electrical devices, including bases and sockets for light bulbs and electron tubes (vacuum tubes), supports for any type of electrical components, automobile distributor caps and other insulators. The Russians even used it to manufacture magazines in rifles and structural aircraft components. In all these forms the fundamental basis is the initial Bakelite resin. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. [10], Baekeland started semi-commercial production of his new material in his home laboratory, marketing it as a material for electrical insulators. Aylesworth; and the Redmanol Chemical Products Company, founded by Lawrence V. These included other types of cast phenolic resins similar to Catalin, and urea-formaldehyde resins, which could be made in brighter colors than polyoxy­benzyl­methylene­glycol­anhydride.[3][7]. [38] Phenolics are less frequently used in general consumer products today due to their cost and complexity of production and their brittle nature. In addition to the original Bakelite material, these companies eventually made a wide range of other products, many of which were marketed under the brand name "Bakelite plastics". As the sales figures also show, the Bakelite Company produced "transparent" cast resin (which did not include filler) for a small ongoing market during the 1910s and 1920s. [55][56] In 1943, the thermosetting phenolic resin was even considered for the manufacture of coins, due to a shortage of traditional material. Experimenting with various pressure and temperature settings, he discovered a moldable plastic that became very hard when cooled and dried. The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. Because molded Bakelite incorporated fillers to give it strength, it tended to be made in concealing dark colors. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. In 1988, authors of The Bakelite® Jewelry Book exposed a counterfeit product named "fakelite." [40] Designer Coco Chanel included Bakelite bracelets in her costume jewelry collections. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Bakelite is a brand-name material developed in 1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. [23], Bakelite phenolic sheet is produced in many commercial grades and with various additives to meet diverse mechanical, electrical and thermal requirements. The molding material is prepared ordinarily by the impregnation of cellulose substances with the initial 'uncured' resin. [60], Bakelite was sometimes used as a substitute for metal in the magazine, pistol grip, fore grip, hand guard, and butt stock of firearms. 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