Her career was spent without notable incident, mainly in the Mediterranean. First large French armoured cruiser, she was also the first training ship to bear this famous name. Twelve new “torpilleurs-éclaireurs” (scout torpedo boats) were also scheduled. and 231.5 knots max. D’Estrées sailed for the mediterrannean, and operated until 1915, then the Red Sea until 1918. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. For protected cruisers, nine classes (24 ships) for 9 single cruisers. They were all discarded in the 1890s but participated for many to the Sino-French war. Torpedoed in action with raider Greif on 29 February 1916. These were 13,847 to 13,995 long tons (14,069 to 14,220 t) comparable to the German Blücher and British Warrior class. Her military masts were of the same style of the battleships of the time. By then flat-side hulls became the norm. Bombe class Torpedo gunboats (1885) Denomination changed for these eight much smaller, three-masted ships (369-430 tons FL), 59.20 m long which were given two shafts VC and loco boilers for 1,800 ihp, enough to reach 19 knots at best. Crew: 459 Armament: 2 x 193, 10 x 140, 10 x 47 mm, 8 x 37 mm, 4 x 457 mm TTs aw. Alger had an overhanging stern, not the Isly and Jean Bart. The D’Assas, Cassard and Du Chayla were very similar to the Friant class, to the exception of their CT protected by 4-in armour, the armoured deck (flat) was 2.8 in and slopes 3.2 in. Infernet was badly damaged and removed from service in 1910. The Condé was disarmed in 1933 only and served as a barracks-ship until 1940. Small station cruisers with fine lines and plough bows. In spite of this, in the early 1920s the French navy began producing new designs of warships that matched-up very well to the other major navies. She was stricken in 1920. With new machinery installed in 1905 she had three funnels and her military masts has been replaced by lighter masts. It also discusses their deployments in the Great War of 1914 - 1918 (World War I). The 164 mm muzzle velocity was 770–775 m/s (2,530–2,540 ft/s) and effective firing range was 9,000 m (9,800 yd) at 25°. This new lineage started with an ambitious long-range 3479 tonnes all-iron vessel, the Duguay-Trouin (1877). Soon a new arms race began, the one that will led to ww1 battleships. The Pothuau was a single cruiser, relatively small and sometimes classed as a protected cruiser as her belt protection was thin. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Le Masson, Henri (1985). However soon, tests showed ​​these midget TBs too small to be effective despite their 18-meters. Torpedo Cruisers were popular, before “destroyers” (by then called contre-torpilleurs) were invented, because perfectly in line with the theories of the obnoxious (in retrospect) Young School. 22.5 knots. All the other ships were built and involved during WW2 more or less heavily (except T2, which was a WWI cruiser). FL Dimensions: 149 x 21.34 x 8.36 m Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 42 Niclausse boilers, 36,000 hp. Alsatian - 11 August 1914. They carried 300 tons of coal. On September 1919, the program was relaunched, 1915 changes were applied, and the project evolved into the first postwar French cruiser design, the Duguay-Trouin-class. The 5.5 in were on the main deck broadside. Armament relied, as above, on the trusted 340mm/45 Modèle 1912 naval gun, but also in a quad configuration. Completed in 1862 to 1870 they were discarded in 1875 to 1888. Modèle 1893 164.7 mm gun (6.48 in) This gun weighted 7.04 t (6.93 long tons; 7.76 short tons), for a barrel length of 7.412 m (24.32 ft), a separate-loading, bagged charge, and fired a 50.5–52 kg (111–115 lb) shell. 15 May 2020 15 May 2020 Thomo the Lost Leave a comment. Forbin’s engines were converted to mixed oil/coal boilers and eight 3-pdr guns were installed. This could only mean the design was intended more like fast battleships like the Queen Elisabeth class, but with a somewhat lighter armor, 270 mm for the main belt here (10 in). In 1919 she returned to her role as a training ship, until 1928 when she was replaced by a new ship of the same name. Armoured cruiser Gloire – Author’s illustration. After the war, Quinet carried out a rescue mission for the population of Smyrna, ecavuating 1200 civilians in 1922. Postwar, France adopted the more conventional 8-in heavy caliber (203 mm), but 6.1-in for light cruisers (155 mm). Actually, the French pre-WW1 concept of the Battlecruiser was closer to the German one than the British. She was based in Port Said and Mudros and after 1917 served as a submarine depot ship, discarded in 1921. The Descartes and Pascal were built at Soc. Armament-wise, the French went with specific gunnery: Main gun on cruisers in the 1880-90s revolved around the 6.4 in (162 mm), and secondary guns 5.5 in (140 mm). These 13.4 in, 15 calibers model 1912 were relatively fast-firing (2 rounds per minute), and made for numbers what they lacked in shell weight. The Germans had it demolished in 1943. They were lightly armed and had the double task of leading TBs, while protecting them and destroying other enemy TBs. After the outbreak of World War I, the ship was sent to cover troopship convoys from North Africa to France and was later stationed in the Syrian Division in early 1915. There are a total of [ 16 ] WW2 French Warships and Submarines (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. In 1925-27, she underwent a complete overhaul, and became a training ship with a new armament, new appearance, and seaplanes under hangar. With Renan and Michelet, they formed the 1st “light” division of the Mediterranean. Secondary armament relied on the local 138.6 mm Modèle 1910 guns mounted in casemates. The many cancellations that followed found these spare guns converted as railway guns, and later whole turrets were used for coastal defense. Also eight were coal-fired and four partial coal/oil-firing. It was removed from the lists only in 1931. Suchet was discarded in 1906. Tage (1886) A much larger (7470 tons) three-funneled protected cruiser with a plough ram bow and tumblehome, barque rigged. As consequence shipyards were soon emptied and constructions halted. boilers for 3000 ihp and 17 knots, armed with five 3.9 in, four 3-pdr, six 1-pdr and four 14 in TTs. France had its light cruisers as war prizes, both former German and Austro-Hungarian vessels after the war. Therefore after her and the Admiral Charner class there was until 1897 a “vacancy” in construction to study other designs. She was stricken from service in 110. Pascal was stricken in 1911 but Descartes served in WW1 as a patrol ship in the East indies until 1917 and she suffered two ships collisions. Armament wise, they carried ten 47 m guns (3-pdr) instead of four and five to nine 1-pdr (37 mm) and larger torpedo tubes of 457 mm (18 in). Technical specifications Displacement: 13 105t. It was though that this pear shape allowed to reduce the weight of the upper deck, making the vessel more seaworthy and allowing to make it a bit taller as well, with a greater freeboard. D’Assas was discarded in 1914 but the two others served in WW1. So in general philosophy, these ships would have been a bit like German battlecruisers, a bit slower (HMS Lion 27.5 knots), slightly less heavily armed (340 rather than 343 mm guns, same for secondary), but better protected. Almanzora - 23 August 1915. She escorted convoys between France and the USA in 1917-18. Armour: From 85 mm armored deck slopes to 125 mm CT, 4 mm shields. Isly survived until 1914 but was discarded. Required fields are marked *. Sfax (1884) A two-funnels, ram bow, overhanging stern barque rigged 4560 tonnes cruiser armed with six 6.4 in guns in sponsons and casemates, ten 5.5 in guns in broadside ports, and ten revolver guns plus five torpedo tubes above the waterline. The main guns were in sponsons, like the secondary ones to the exception of a single poop 5.5 in gun. Crew: 387-405 Armour: CT 3 in, deck 2 in, gun shields 2 in Armament: 4 x 162, 6 of 140, 2 x 65, 12 x 47, 10 x 37 mm, 5 x 305 mm TT bw. Each shaft was connected by a high, medium and low-pressure turbine. She helped evacuating thousands of Armenians from the 1915 Turkish genocide. On April 27, 1915 the Austrian U5 sent two torpedoes in the flank of the Gambetta which capsized and sank in 10 minutes, taking with him almost all his crew. Du Chayla covered the 1907 Casablanca landing. The French still classed the latter as “contre-torpilleurs” but they were much too slow to be effective in that role and never really found their place in the French Navy, as in many others. “La Jeanne” in 1900 as built and in Grey livery in wartime. Montcalm, from an unknown magazine, 1902 (cc). Armor: Belt 152, turrets 172, blockhouse 81, turrets 100 mm- Crew: 615 Armament: 2 x 193, 8 x 162, 6 x 100, 18 x 47 mm and 2 x 457mm TT sub. Returned 25 September 1919. During the Great War, the three buildings were in the western Mediterranean and also served in the Adriatic. The Germans as well were very receptive to this tactical approach to the use of cruisers, and they used theirs (Von Spee’s squadron in particular) just for that purpose (see for example the Emden). Anti-TB armament comprised two 47 mm (2 in) QF and 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns (37 mm) of the same dependable model mounted on other ships. At first, a 6,000-tonne éclaireurs d’escadre (fleet scouts) design was chosen, more versatile, but soon a lighter ship similar to the British Arethusa class was preferred. The French recognised the previous HMS Vulcan’s failure as the inability of its midget TBs to deal with the heavy weather of the north sea, and thought the Mediterranean better suited for the concept, but their experiment fell under the same predicament. The class included Glory, Conde, Admiral Aube, Marseillaise and Sully. The Dupuy de Lôme particular innovation was to be entirely steel-sheated and having military masts instead of being rigged. Metacentric height was calculated as 1.03 m (same as the Lion class). The belt was 280 mm thick, as compared to HMS Lion’s 229 mm as an example. Relatively large two-funneled cruisers with military masts, plough bows and tumblehome. You can post above average damage and still lose because the last ships will run you down and pen you to … If that was not been the case, the Normandie would have emerged in late 1915, early 1916, the Lyon in 1917, mirroring the Battlecruisers. Wjat can be said about French cruisers, compared to their foreign counterparts ? The Cruiser. Despite careful maintenance, their machinery was worn out in 1914 and top speed was usually 15-16 knots. Only Troude and Lalande had an armoured CT, with 1-in plating. Modèle 1891 65 mm gun (2.6 in) For tertiary guns, the Canon de 65 mm Modèle 1891 became widespread (2.6 in). The very last French cruiser prior to WW1 was the Waldeck-Rousseau (1908), second of the Edgar Quinet class. However, the main battery turrets being quite heavy, this imposes the whole range of modifications to enhance the hull’s solidity, with heavy-duty longitudinal beams and bracing, and strengthened inner and outer skins of the hull. It used a vertical sliding-wedge, and its rate of fire was about 30 rpm, for a muzzle velocity of 571 m/s (1,870 ft/s) and a maximum firing range of 5.9 km (3.7 mi) at +20° and 4.5 km (2.8 mi) at +8. The French Sfax was launched the same year, and all-metal, like following cruisers. She had a minimal sloop rigging. At first the captain believed it was an accident and let the German cruiser go without a fight. It used a Welin breech block, with Hydro-pneumatic recoil also found on the famous “75 mm Modèle 1897”. Descartes suffered hot ammo rooms problems and lacked ventilation. There are a total of [ 3 ] WW1 French Warships (1914-1918) entries in the Military Factory. Models for these scout cruisers were not hard to find: Both the Royal Navy and Kaiserliches Marine, Regia Marina and KuK. All these cruisers were discarded in the late 1890s to 1908 for the Milan. This cruiser was marked as a landmark in naval design, and considered by some authors to be the world’s first armoured cruiser. There was no precedent indeed. Next were built eight steamships, the wooden screw corvettes 1,795 tons Cosmao and Dupleix, the 1,387 tons Talisman, 1,795 tons Résolue, the 2745 tons wooden screw frigates Vénus and Minerve and the first wooden hull cruisers, the 1,870 tons Decrès and the 1,722 tons Desaix. Main guns were placed in single mounts in a pair forward, two aft, and four amidships. They escorted the convoys without making losses despite their poor underwater protection, like the other French cruisers. Author’s illustration of the Chateaurenault, showing its obvious liner style. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_battlecruiser_proposals navweaps.com/Weapons/WNFR_134-45_m1912.php – About the French 340 mm guns Friedman, Norman (2011). The revised plans under ‘Project 171’ concerned six cruisers, presented by the new French Minister of Marine, Georges Leygues by January 1920. However the denomination changed overtime, recognising the too great disparity in tonnage with regular cruisers and swift in role: The first Condor and Wattignies classes were “cruisers” wheras the Bombe, Lévrier, D’Iberville, the Dunois class were “gunboats”. The entire protection was copied from the Normandie, but slightly thinner. They were much larger and almost twice as heavy than previous ships (Lévrier class) twith a forecastle fore and aft, and a larger and better distributed artillery. Kriegsmarine all created their own version of the same concept. Technical specifications Displacement: 6680t. Edgar Quinet class Armoured cruisers (1906), Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928), South Korea unveils initiative to promote eco-friendly ship technologies, Hybrid upgrades to give vessels more attractive environmental profiles, USCG’s 9th national security cutter sails away from shipyard, Taiwan launches improved ‘carrier killer’ corvette, commissions new minelayer, ¿Cuál fue la misión secreta del buque San Jacinto en Cabo Verde? Her commander beached her to avoid sinking. 21.5 knots max. Alger was hulked in 1911, Jean Bart was wrecked on 11.2.1907 on the north African coast. Roger Chesneau, Eugène M. Koleśnik, Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships (1860-1905) Robert Gardiner et Randal Gray, Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships (1906-1921) Eric Gille, Cent ans de cuirassés français, Nantes, Marines édition http://le.fantasque.free.fr/php3/gun.php3?page_size=M#mn_spl_194_40_87 http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNFR_76-50_m1902.php Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours, Tome II, 1870–2006 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cruisers_of_France http://fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/1ere-guerre-mondiale/marine-francaise.php#crois, Your email address will not be published. She was stricken in 1922. The early cruiser development did not differed much from other nations, the first cruisers were the continuation of mixed steam frigates, with better guns mounted on rails for greater arcs of fire. “A” design displaced 27,500 t (27,100 long tons; 30,300 short tons) and was 210 m long for 27m wide. In 1942 the Germans demolished it. Your email address will not be published. This had the advantage of luring a potential predator, and could pay off later in submersible warfare as a Q-ship. Displacement range considerably between 2,740 tonnes (Armorique) and 3,935 tonnes (Magicienne). She was fast enough and her autonomy was high. The same plan also oversaw the conversion of the Normandie class into the aircraft carrier Béarn. These five ships derived from Gueydon which they took again many characteristics. The French produced some of the most striking and innovatory interwar cruiser designs. Victor Hugo accompanied the Jean Bart to Malta, after the latter concealed a torpedo, and evacuated with Michelet the Serbian troops from Corfu to Bizerte. She was then rented to Belgium temporarily, but soon the navy separated from it, having no means to exploit her. mm, Decks 80? The Gueydon class included the Gueydon, Dupetit-Thouars and Montcalm, started in 1898-99 and completed in 1902-05. They featured four 5.5 in/45 (140 mm), one masked on the forecastle and the others in sponsons. Admiral Charner’s keel was laid down in 1889 at Rochefort. Washington, DC: R. Beresford. T3, T8 and T9 are paper ships, with T9 a paper ship that would have gone into production if France hadn't been invaded in 1940. boilers (or 24 Belleville on Alger), 8,000 hp, 19.5 knots. French Cruisers, 1922-1956 ... My only regret is the lack of coverage of the ex-German cruisers which became Mulhouse and Strasbourg after WW1, and the armoured cruisers which survived into the period of the title, e.g. Three funnels, two light masts wide apart, a plough bow and tumblehome made this single ship a typical French cruiser of the time, which participated actively in WW1 and was discarded in 1929. They fought in WW1: Casabianca hit on a mine off Smyrna in June 1915 and sank, and Cassini was torpedoed by a U-boat in February 1917 in the Strait of Bonifacio. The armoured cruiser Condé, from the Gloire class, seen from the Romanov Shtandard Imperial Yacht, from the Romanov family album 2, page 26 (CC). The heavy guns were splitted into two twin turrets, six single turrets, and four in barbettes. During the same period British light cruisers normally carried 6in guns. Author’s illustration of the Gueydon, in wartime livery. The Dupuy de Lôme was designed for this role, precisely, named after the great innovator of the French Navy. Amiral Cecille (1888) A smaller but generally similar 5,836 tonnes vessel, barque without royals, armed the same as the Tage. Presentation following is based on a chronological order rather than by tonnage. Instead of a raked bow, the designer choosed a simpler straight stem while the hull shapes were traditional. These ships were designed for colonial service in the far East (Indochina). French WWI Armored Cruisers x3 (FUD) (VDYNEG8VK) by Echoco on Shapeways. Outside the Sully, which struck a reef in Indochina on September 30, 1905, and sank body and property, the three others served in the Atlantic and Admiral Aube in the Mediterranean. Circé type converted Frigates This comprised 11 converted sailing frigate group laid down in 1829-1850 from various yards. In 1859 when the French unveiled the first sea going ironclad, the Royal Navy had to swap on the first all-metal ironclad and whole series followed. The last French armoured cruisers, and by far the most imposing, the two Quinet (the second being the Waldeck-Rousseau) were both a synthesis of the experience gained and an additional milestone in the genre. As the same displacement was kept, compensation was obtained by a reduction in the armor protection (secondary guns) and increased power. More were planned for a higher displacement 15 million protective deck was to! The remainder of the dreadnought in 1906 and 1910 but the third in 1919 the capture Samoa... 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